Everything About Fentanyl You Should Know
Fentanyl is a powerful synthetic opioid that induces analgesia in a similar way to morphine but to a larger extent. The potency of this powerful pharmacologic agent is often 50 to 100 times higher. A single dose of 100 micrograms can provide analgesia equivalent to about 10 mg of morphine. Fentanyl, on the other hand, has very distinct characteristics and pharmacokinetics. Due to its largely hepatic clearance, it is most commonly used as a sedative in intubated patients and severe cases of pain in patients with renal failure. Fentanyl is sometimes used to treat chronic pain patients who have established an opiate tolerance. When used as a sedative, the medication is usually administered by a drip. Finally, the use of fentanyl can be used to treat epilepsy. That is, as part of therapeutic neuroleptanalgesia, in combination with specific neuroleptic medicines. This activity explains the indications, mechanism of action, administration techniques, severe adverse effects, contraindications, monitoring, and toxicity of fentanyl so that doctors can guide patients’ treatment to get the best possible results.
The CYP450 enzyme system, specifically CYP3A4, is used to metabolize fentanyl in the liver. The drug’s half-life ranges from 3 to 7 hours. Urine excretion accounts for 75%, and feces for 9% of total excretion.
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Euphoria, confusion, respiratory depression (which, if severe and untreated, can lead to arrest), drowsiness, nausea, visual disturbances, dyskinesia, hallucinations, delirium (including “narcotic delirium”), analgesia, constipation, narcotic ileus, muscle rigidity, constipation, addiction, loss of consciousness, hypotension, coma, and even death are all side effects of fentanyl Alcohol, and other drugs (such as cocaine and heroin) can increase the adverse effects of fentanyl, generating multi-layered clinical scenarios that can be difficult to treat. When these substances are combined, they create unfavorable conditions that make the patient’s prognosis more difficult.
Common names and Variations
Apace, China Girl, China Town, China White, Dance Fever, Goodfellas, Great Bear, He-Man, Poison and Tango & Cash, etc.
IMF (illicitly produced fentanyl) is accessible in a variety of forms on the drug market, including liquid and powder. Fentanyl powder resembles a variety of different medications. It’s often combined with other substances like heroin, cocaine, and methamphetamine and packaged into tablets that look like prescription painkillers. Drugs laced with fentanyl are exceedingly hazardous, and many people are unaware that their medications include fentanyl. IMF can be found in nasal sprays, ocular drops, and drips on paper or little candies in liquid form.
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